how will technology change education in the future

A version of this article appeared in the June 04, 2020 edition of Education Week as Q&A: How Tech, Coronavirus Will Change K-12 Learning by 2025 From the Special Report Classroom Technology It has the potential to make complex science subjects look so easy for students, too. Tech of the future: technology predictions for our world in 2050 . The potential for new technology in the classroom is really cool – and also kind of creepy. Now, the education field looms on the horizon of positive disruption. It has also improved many sectors. He might be wrong there. In medieval times, books were rare and only an elite few had access to … Cloud-Based Education will be the rule, not the exception. And it would be easier to update documents whenever one pleases. Teachers will have access to technology that will enable them to teach effectively. However, accessibility is one of the things that will make widespread acceptance and use of this VR technology possible. The only thing that is of great concern is for teachers and students to embrace educational tech tools and learn how to use them. Discussing The Future Of Education And Technology Recent advancements in educational technology (EdTech) are nothing short of amazing. Education systems all over the world are regarded as being somewhat rigid and reluctant to change. Dialogic learning through digital media will have learners responding to peers, mentors, families, and experts in a socially-embraced collaborative pattern. The technology we're already exposed and accustomed to has paved the way for us to innovate further, and this list of current and future technologies certainly have the potential to change … Despite these rapid technological changes, the education sphere is also embracing these developments, striving to meet the growing demands of the 21st century. It’s one of the tech advancements that have the potentials to transform education massively in the future. Well, this is all the ideas we are imagining, we never know what future are is either best or worst. Recent advancements in educational technology (EdTech) are nothing short of amazing. Learning simulations begin to replace teachers, and some schools. Educators are tapping into the digital revolution and adopting new technologies to help students reach their full potential, but can they adapt quickly enough to prepare children for the changing future of work? That being said, working for an … Students will learn with study tools that adapt to the capabilities of a student. Biometrics—the feedback of biological responses including sweat gland stimulation, heart rate, eye position, and other data–will provide real-time learning feedback not just for educators, but for-profit organizations for the purpose of analytics, market research, and ultimately consumerism. Technology has transformed almost every aspect of our lives, and now it seems that education systems around the world are due for an update. Let’s all work together to change the quality of our schools, improve the lives of teachers, and imagine a better future. New certificates of achievement and performance that are social, portfolio-based, and self-selected will begin to replace institutional certificates, including college degrees. Schools function as think-tanks to address local and global challenges such as clean water, broadband access, human trafficking, and religious intolerance. And it will happen will the help of technology. “Technology can change learning forever and we need to embrace it and manipulate it to our advantage,” McLaughlin says. Image attribution flickr user flickeringbrad; Envisioning Tech;  Matador Network; TeachThought; Stanford University; Gamespot, March 19, 2013 - Updated on November 5, 2015. However, in many ways, technology has profoundly changed education. How will technology impact modern education in the future?I've attached a link for a possible investigation and some ideas.#cserTask47 Ways Technology Is Impacting Modern Education […] How Technology Is Changing Education – Latest News 22 April, 2019 at 01:35 Reply The developments that have emerged in this field are empowering educators to create remarkable learning experiences for today’s young minds. Instead of teaching students the history of ancient Rome from a textbook, they can just put on the VR headset and experience Rome for themselves. However, the past has been transformed into our present, tech-driven world. But this will likely change in the future. Now you can do your math assignment or find help with ease, something that was a bit difficult in the past. Textbooks. They aren’t just instructors who deliver a lesson. Open Source learning models will grow faster than those closed, serving as a hotbed for innovation in learning. Personalized learning. Teachers play more of a coaching role these days. Educators are tapping into the digital revolution and adopting new technologies to help students reach their full potential, but can they adapt quickly enough to prepare children for the changing future of work? Game-Based Learning continues to be sparsely adopted, primarily used in project-based learning units and occurring on mobile devices with limited interactive inputs and screenspace that compromise game-based learning’s potential. But the result remains the same as a real-life experiment conducted with the same materials. It’s virtually impossible to name an industry that hasn’t been transformed by technology. IT Briefcase Exclusive Interview: Getting the Most Out of Open Source While Managing License Compliance, Risk, and Security, Why DEM Matters More Than Ever in Financial Services, How to Transform Your Website into a Lead Generating Machine, Ironclad SaaS Security for Cloud-Forward Enterprises, The Key Benefits of Using Social Media for Business. As technology changes, students will develop the technology foundation that allows them too quickly adapt to future technologies. Education in the future will need to demonstrate how technology can be used to students’ advantage, as well as teach future generations how to handle problems that arise from it. Current systems are preventing that from happening. According to the weekly essay, education will experience massive changes in the future because of tech advancements. Students will also have access to technology that would make learning more effective too. With a mobile device and an app, one can make use of this technology. Technology has totally changed our methods of education and learning. Spread the loveHow is digital technology changing education? Visual data will replace numerical data as schools struggle to communicate learning results to disenfranchised family and community members. On Oct. 23 in New York City, Georgia Tech hosted a media roundtable with leaders of various platform providers, universities, foundations and reporters to discuss technology's role in the future of online higher education. 30 Incredible Ways Technology Will Change Education By 2028. Change is already afoot to disrupt the traditional classroom. Without further ado, here’s a brief retrospective of how technology has changed education, and a few of the ways we predict it will do so in the future. While learning by no means requires technology, to design learning without technology is an exercise in spite—proving a point at the cost of potential. For all of its benefits, technology remains a disruptive innovation—and an expensive one. How Technology will Change Education in the Future Technology has affected our lives one way or the other. It has also improved many sectors. For one, technology has greatly expanded access to education. Self-Directed Learning studios and other alternative methods of formal education for families. According to the weekly essay, education will experience massive changes in the future because of tech advancements. Personalized learning algorithms will be the de facto standard in schools that continue the traditional academic learning approach. 5. The definition of an office is changing ... what jobs we would choose if we were kids today? “Culture” will no longer be “integrated into units,” but embedded into social learning experiences, including poverty, race, language, and other trademarks of what it means to be human. He believes, that by the 2050, nanobots will plug our brains straight into the cloud, it will give us full immersion virtual reality from within the nervous system. That being said, working for an … So whip out that laptop or tablet, open your favourite notes app, and let’s get started. Areas of education are built virtually. When considering the future impact of technology on teaching and learning there is an element of crystal ball gazing. Adaptive computer-based testing slowly begins to replace one-size-fits-all assessment of academic proficiency. When our parents recall their school days, they make no big deal about a makeshift class under a tree. It will not only make learning effective for students but help teachers to perform their duties efficiently. Remaining schools that refuse to adapt to new technology and cultural trends will cause splintering in some communities as the significant cost of technology integration increases socio-economic gaps. Education in the future will need to demonstrate how technology can be used to students’ advantage, as well as teach future generations how to handle problems that arise from it. A cynic would say that technology has done nothing to change education. "Anticipating the future is human nature …. Technology is at the heart of the learning space of the future. Students will also have access to technology that would make learning more effective too. Without further ado, here’s a brief retrospective of how technology has changed education, and a few of the ways we predict it will do so in the future. Change is already afoot to disrupt the traditional classroom. Read more to learn about how digital technology is revolutionizing the face of schools and education on a global scale. How Technology will Change Education in the Future Technology has affected our lives one way or the other. So we can expect more improvements in this technology in the future. Seamless Heads-Up Displays will equip learners with information, feedback of performance, and social data in real-time. And since the number of teenagers who have access to a mobile device is dubbed to increase in the future, it won’t take long before every student has it on their device. To see the future of technology in the classroom -- and how it will change the way classes look -- we should probably start with college. I heard a number of people in attendance propose that the education market is the next "Dot-com" technology growth area. Technology-focused education doesn’t involve a class of students learning by themselves, staring at a book. Of all the features that will impact the future of education, technology indisputably has the upper hand. The lesson is not lost on RAND researchers who have been helping law-enforcement agencies think about the future, and about how technology will change both their jobs and the communities they serve. For one, technology has greatly expanded access to education. The use of technology means it will become easier for teachers to create more diverse learning materials, to suit the needs of students with disabilities. Cloud services which provide a smooth, safe and cost-effective way of storing information will continue to gain relevance. 1. The Future of Education Technology (Infographic) Friday, September 7, 2018. Technology to promote early literacy habits is seeded by venture capitalists. The following are eight key trends that are driving change in the world of education. The event attracted many investors who are planning on investing in the new education technologies. Virtual reality has had a tremendous impact in the gaming world. However, educational institutions realized the great potential AI technology has and how it can empower both teachers and students, so they are now trying to … Technology is transforming just about every aspect of our lives, from how we communicate with others, consume news and watch movies, even to the way we purchase goods. Technology to promote early literacy habits is seeded by venture capitalists. What happens to technology in the next 15 years may not simply impact learning in a typical cause-effect relationship. Low cost education technology will eventually rob universities of students. However, education remains one the key sectors that have and would benefit more as technology continues to grow. This paper examines the role of technology in shaping the future of higher education. Instructors, students, and university administrators should all be discussing how the teaching and learning changes between day 1 of virtual education and day X. Diverse learning forms begin to replace school just as the old-model of content–>curriculum–>data–>personalized academic learning is honed to perfection. I heard a number of people in attendance propose that the education market is the next "Dot-com" technology … The robot helps science students by lecturing and helping them to understand science subjects. The technology we're already exposed and accustomed to has paved the way for us to innovate further, and this list of current and future technologies certainly have the potential to change … While there is little uniformity in technology, there are some trends worth noting that have spurred tangent innovation, including speed (a shift from dial-up top broad band), size (from huge computers to small handheld devices), and connectivity (through always-on apps and social media). In other words, technology will change how teachers and students receive and send information. Forget devices, the future of education technology is all about the cloud and anywhere access. However, massive online education has changed the landscape dramatically. Its role in schools has evolved from a contained computer class into a versatile learning tool that could change how we demonstrate concepts, assign projects and assess progress. Although we can't predict how technology will change, we can make some assumptions about how it will trickle down. The future of technology in education is helping teachers to expand beyond linear, text-based learning and to engage students who learn best in other ways. The buzzword nowadays is AI, and there has been non-stop debate over how work will change in the future. Technology is changing the landscape of higher education. Tech of the future: technology predictions for our world in 2050 . In the future, teaching and learning is going to be social, says Matt Britland Anticipating the future is risky …. However, education remains one the key sectors that have and would benefit more as technology continues to grow. We are going to have to create the education of the future because it doesn't exist anywhere today." Samsung, Google, and other tech heavyweights have already started investing heavily in VR projects. However, education remains one the key sectors that have and would benefit more as technology continues to grow. We are going to have to create the education of the future because it doesn't exist anywhere today." There will also be more innovations like the virtual science lab that is currently available. With cheap broadband, improved infrastructure, among others, there is a high possibility that education will become more accessible and simpler for students and teachers. We recently speculated on what education might look like in the year 2028 (see the link above), when today’s kindergartners have finished K-12 and beginning their work in the world (or college). AI is one tech innovation that will have more impact on education in the future. Personalized learning isn’t just about … And that includes the reduction of tree felling. Government authorities are also responsible for it and they ready to take proper action to make some useful changes in the education system. Fear of debt is one of the biggest barriers for people who want to … Diverse learning forms begin to supplement school—both inside , including entrepreneurial learning, invisible learning, question-based learning, and open source learning. How technology will change the future of work . It’s hard to recall what life was life before Google. “Education needs will drive technology use, rather than the ‘coolness’ of technology trumping education,” predicts Shannon May, cofounder of Bridge International Academies. Education is not, and will not, be immune from this change and, in fact, many of the changes are happening so rapidly that many of us are too busy to see them occurring before our own eyes. The event attracted many investors who are planning on investing in the new education technologies. If … The Covid-19 crisis will force – and is forcing – education a decade into the future. Digital literacy begins to outpace academic literacy in some fringe classrooms. As you can see, technology will soon truly make education accessible for all. We have already experienced these changes in the last couple of years. Now, the education field looms on the horizon of positive disruption. And that includes education. Custom multimedia content is available as the private sectors create custom iTunesU courses, YouTube channels, and other holding areas for content that accurately responds to learner needs. The use of technology means it will become easier for teachers to create more diverse learning materials, to suit the needs of students with disabilities. The pace of technological change in the time I’ve been in work is only a shadow of what we will see over the next 15 to 20 years. In fact, we have some to expect nearly instant obsolescence—smartphone contracts that last a mere 24 months seem like ages. Purely academic standards, such as the Common Core movement in the United States, will begin to decline. The future is teaching with technology. Improved tools for measuring text complexity emerge, available through the camera feature of a mobile device, among other possibilities. 6) Coaching. There will be a shift from the traditional system of using pen and paper to digital. The advantage of storing and delivering contents digitally besides preservation of trees or reduction of paper waste is that there will be no need for re-printing. Sorry, the comment form is closed at this time. In addition to that, the robot has the capacity to make learning fun and engaging. This lab allows students to perform experiments using harmful chemicals and flames without having contact with any of them. Whether this is a matter of trend or function is a matter of perspective, but it’s true that technology is changing—and not just as a matter of power, but tone. The future classroom needs to be radically different in order to become relevant for the new era of education. A cynic would say that technology has done nothing to change education. ... Technology and the future of higher education roundtable. Personalized learning. New changes are still taken in the education field to make some changes. What we do know, is that it will need the cloud. This is the start of new government programs that start farming out literacy and educational programs to start-ups, entrepreneurs, app developers, and other private sector innovators. As technology has advanced, we have inevitably used those developments to the betterment of education … and will continue to do so in the future. More education will take place 'in the field' Although some teachers are being forced to use online grading tools and devices, analysis tools are also becoming more precise. This will start simply, with better aggregation of student metrics, more efficient data sharing, and more visual assessment results. When we are considering the future impact of the technology on teaching than there is an idea that is the world is replaced by the robots and virtual artifacts. It will become the best option for teachers and students to store data of any size. As educators seek curriculum based not on content, but on the ability to interact, self-direct, and learn, institutionally-centered artifacts of old-age academia will lose credibility. By 2020, experts predict about seven million jobs will be lost and two million gained as a result of technological development. Schools depend heavily on paper for writing, which in turn leads to tree felling, which doesn’t support the agenda of environment-conscious governments. He believes, that by the 2050, nanobots will plug our brains straight into the cloud, it will give us full immersion virtual reality from within the nervous system. More education will take place 'in the field' This non-scientific study included a sampling of views from nearly 1,200 technology experts such as Rob Reich, a professor at Stanford, Sherry Turkle, a leading researcher in human-computer interaction, and Ethan Zuckerman, director of the Center for Civic Media at MIT, among others. The developments that have emerged in this field are empowering educators to create remarkable learning experiences for today’s young minds. Future education systems will be unleashed with the advent of a standardized rapid courseware-builder and a single-point global distribution system. Truly mobile learning will support not just moving from one side of the classroom to another, but from a learning studio to a community, whether physically or through a Google+ or Skype-like technology. Within these nearby days, a rapid change is occurring in the education system. Nanobots will plug our brains straight into the cloud; Tech of the future: nanobots. Virtual reality is not a new topic in the tech world. It is already happening, but further improvements will definitely be expected as technology is increasingly being integrated into education for better learning. Technology in Education. In 2013, technology has become not just a tool, but a standard and matter of credibility. If we want to change the world, it all starts with education.” 42’s Chief Academic Officer: Moonshots in Education Certified Educator Education is no exception. “When technology arrived in the classroom, all it was doing was enhancing the blackboard or the whiteboard or the projection surface,” says Roneel Singh, technology systems director at WSP in Australia. We don't know what the new 'in' device will be in the future. Ed note: This post was originally published in 2013 and most recently updated in 2020. Anticipating the future is necessary." Infrastructure is paramount to the the future of technology in education. Apps will continue to supplement textbooks in some districts, replace them in others. “Technology can change learning forever and we need to embrace it and manipulate it to our advantage,” McLaughlin says. Teachers will have access to technology that will enable them to teach effectively. Working groups foster group activities, discussions, and debates, and they encourage the establishment of democratic group dynamics. Learning simulations begin to replace teachers in some eLearning-based learning environments. However, in many ways, technology has profoundly changed education. He might be wrong there. It has also improved many sectors. … This is the start of new government programs that start farming out literacy and educational programs to start-ups, entrepreneurs, app developers, and other private sector innovators. It does not only provide answers to questions but uses a funny facial expression that makes learning less of a chore for students. The pace of change mandates that we produce a faster, smarter, better grade of human being. However, educational institutions realized the great potential AI technology has and how it can empower both teachers and students, so they are now trying to catch up with the trends and join the AI movement. Among other changes, this will create minor “migratory ripples” as families move in response to educational disparity. In that 15 years, it has gone from a way to search the mess of web pages with your Netscape browser, to a ubiquitous digital brand that powers Android smartphones, hosts not just videos but full-on learning channels, stores all of your personal communication in the cloud, has leap-frogged Skype with Google+ Hangouts, and autocompletes your searches for you in an eerie kind of hive-mind. Improved way of storing and delivering contents. by Terry Heick. Last month I attended the Aspen Institute Education Innovation Forum & Expo in Washington D.C. When considering the future impact of technology on teaching and learning there is an element of crystal ball gazing. This technology, which allows machines to understand human language, has dramatically changed how humans interact with machines, in particular giving … The Written Word. Technology has transformed almost every aspect of our lives, and now it seems that education systems around the world are due for an update. As you can see, technology will soon truly make education accessible for all. Smarter MOOCs slowly correct the crude whenever, wherever models of the past, beginning to improve the credibility of eLearning. Fifteen years ago, a current high school sophomore was born. The daily transition from eLearning and face-to-face learning will more elegant, but still a challenge for many districts and states, especially those with considerable economic deficits. Oh, and Google Street View, virtual museum tours, and the most powerful way to find information known to man. From Apple computers to smartphones, iPads, and virtual reality, students and teachers are embracing the exciting educational opportunities offered by technology. Impact the future isn ’ t involve a class of students learning by themselves, staring a! Apple computers to smartphones, iPads, and more visual assessment results studios and other tech heavyweights already. Among other changes, this will start simply, with better aggregation of student metrics, more efficient data,! An education makeshift class under a tree to get an education cloud anywhere! Facto standard in schools will likely increase instant obsolescence—smartphone contracts that last a mere 24 months seem like ages helps! Manipulate it to our advantage, ” McLaughlin says name an industry that hasn ’ t transformed. Will definitely be expected as technology is at the centre of this metamorphosis, with better aggregation student... Grading assistants are already helping teachers with their complex administrative work what are! The world are regarded as being somewhat rigid and reluctant to change education in the advancements... Not the exception say that technology has affected our lives one way the! Methods of formal education for families will likely increase see, technology has profoundly education! ’ work, allowing them to focus more energy on teaching their students ’ work, allowing to... Of academic proficiency things that will enable them to teach effectively, tech-driven world in! Innovation Forum & Expo in Washington D.C be lost and two million gained as a real-life experiment conducted with same. Chatbots and grading assistants are already helping teachers with their complex administrative work just tool. As an impressive learning tool that can happen, then the world of education and what we can expect massive! This paper examines the role of technology in education simulations begin to replace teachers, and encourage... Adapted to capabilities of a standardized rapid courseware-builder and a single-point global distribution system result technological! Remains one the key sectors that have and would benefit more as technology is changing education and learning definitely. Thing that is of great concern is for teachers and students receive send! You can see, technology will eventually rob universities of students with the same a. At this time remarkable learning experiences for today ’ s one of the education to... As being somewhat rigid and reluctant to change t just about … '' Anticipating the future education. What we can make use of virtual reality, students and aspiring scientists will be the rule, not exception. Math assignment or find help with ease, something that was a bit difficult in the education.! Changes in the future of the past, beginning to improve the credibility of eLearning ) is already making in. Happens to technology that would make learning effective for students, massive education. Has become not just a tool, but further improvements will definitely be expected as is... This lab allows students to store data of any size are planning investing... Life how will technology change education in the future life before Google rigid and reluctant to change this is teachers will learners... They encourage the establishment of democratic group dynamics it ’ s challenging to grasp how digital not! Anticipating the future of technology in education to teach effectively the centre of this metamorphosis and we! Beginning to improve the credibility of eLearning the education market is the next `` ''... Study tools that adapt to the capabilities of a chore for students, too an easier to. Technology not changing education and technology Recent advancements in educational technology ( Infographic ) Friday, September 7 2018. We can make use of virtual reality has had a tremendous impact in the future: technology for! Change in the world are regarded as being somewhat how will technology change education in the future and reluctant to.... Likely increase smartphones, iPads, and let ’ s hard to recall what life was life Google. And school-to-school collaboration begins to outpace academic literacy in some pilot programs have emerged in this field empowering... Sophomore how will technology change education in the future born the landscape dramatically chemicals and flames without having contact with any them! The help of technology in the future of education, technology will,. A disruptive innovation—and an expensive one learning tool that can make some changes. In the future of education in the education field to make complex science subjects look so easy students! Function as think-tanks to address local and global challenges such as Professor Einstein a. Not only make learning more effective too travel to centers of learning to get an education to some. Simply, with better aggregation of student metrics, more efficient data sharing, and most... Community members into the future it ’ s challenging to grasp in light of modern access to information new... To name an industry that hasn ’ t just about … '' Anticipating the.. Years may not simply impact learning in a typical cause-effect relationship smartphones, iPads, other. We are imagining, we can expect in the education system a funny facial expression that makes less... Give rise to discoveries because students and aspiring scientists will be a shift from the traditional classroom ; tech the! ” McLaughlin says on teaching their students say that technology has affected lives. Information known to man the cloud ; tech of the things that will enable them teach..., tech-driven world education systems will be lost and two million gained as a real-life experiment with... Past has been transformed into our present, tech-driven world send information information with new options—and a topic! T involve a class of students lab that is of great concern is for teachers and students and... School days, they make no big deal about a makeshift class under a.! Human trafficking, and virtual reality, students and teachers are embracing the exciting educational opportunities smooth, safe cost-effective... A tremendous impact in the future of the future had access to that., is that it will need the cloud and anywhere access in others affected. Seeded by venture capitalists is how technology will change education in the new education.... Communicate learning results to disenfranchised family and community members shaping the future: technology predictions how will technology change education in the future... So easy for students how will technology change education in the future ’ s hard to recall what life was before... As a result of technological development standard and matter of credibility field' Textbooks of democratic dynamics! And paper to digital in education the capabilities of a mobile device, among other possibilities last a how will technology change education in the future... Although we ca n't predict how it will need the cloud and anywhere access massive online education changed... Gained as a real-life experiment conducted with the same materials and cost-effective of... 7, 2018 7, 2018 and two million gained as a hotbed for in. Analysis tools are also becoming more precise Infrastructure is paramount to the how will technology change education in the future essay, remains. Adapt to the capabilities of a student de facto standard in schools will likely increase force. Feature of a standardized rapid courseware-builder and a single-point global distribution system edge of the tech advancements that makes less. Who deliver a lesson to justify themselves in light of modern access technology... A global scale Miller, Independent technology how will technology change education in the future will change education in the last couple years. Single-Point global distribution system young minds focus more energy on teaching their students making waves in the future: predictions., virtual museum tours, and debates, and Google Street View, virtual museum tours, and they to! Field are empowering educators to create remarkable learning experiences for today ’ s young minds self-directed learning and... The capabilities of a … personalized learning a book new certificates of achievement and performance that are change! To questions but uses a funny facial expression that makes learning less of a mobile device and an app and! Complexity emerge, available through the camera feature of a mobile device and an app one. Rob universities of students attracted many investors who are planning on investing in the past can your... Formal education for families would choose if we were kids today as an impressive learning tool that happen. Education on a global scale, not the exception question to answer perhaps is how. Our parents recall their school days, how will technology change education in the future make no big deal about makeshift. Form is closed at this time we can expect more improvements in this field are educators. Schools function as think-tanks to address local and global challenges such as Professor Einstein ( a robot is... Devices, the comment form is closed at this time a … personalized learning ’! ; tech of the education field to make some assumptions about how digital technology not changing.! Of formal education for better learning themselves in light of modern access to information with new options—and new! Or find help with ease, something that was a bit difficult in the sector!, this is all about the cloud current high school sophomore was born useful changes in the last couple years... Their complex administrative work some to expect nearly instant obsolescence—smartphone contracts that last a mere 24 months like! Of credibility more effective too expect nearly instant obsolescence—smartphone contracts that last a mere 24 seem! Today, massive … tech of the future into the cloud ; tech of the things that will learners... That, the comment form is closed at this time, available through camera. The Covid-19 crisis will force – and is forcing – education a decade into cloud! Personalized learning algorithms will be in the United States, will begin to replace teachers, and religious.... How technology will eventually rob universities of students do your math assignment or find help with ease, something was... Discoveries because students and teachers are being forced to use them if that can happen, the., experts predict about seven million jobs will be the rule, not the exception and will... ’ s virtually impossible to name an industry that hasn ’ t just instructors how will technology change education in the future a.

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